Germany

Герб
 Флаг
 
Coat of arms: displays a black eagle with a red beak, a red tongue and red feet on a golden field, which is blazoned: Or, an eagle displayed sable beaked langued and membered gules. This is the Bundesadler (German for «Federal Eagle»).

Flag: is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold. 

It was adopted on 23 May 1949.

 
  • Anthem: «Deutschlandlied» has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922. Only the third stanza is used as the national anthem. The stanza's beginning, «Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit» is considered the unofficial national motto of Germany, and is inscribed on modern German Army belt buckles and the rims of some German coins.
  • Official languages: German.
  • Geographical location: is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west. 
  • Administrative divisions: Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Each state has its own state constitution and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: Berlin and Hamburg. The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Bremen and Bremerhaven.
  • Capital: Berlin.
  • Governance:  it is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). The president is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.The chancellor is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet, similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body.
  • Population: 80.5 million.
  • Currency: Euro.
  • GDP: $3.33 trillion.
  • Time zone: UTC +1, UTC +2.
  • Telephone code: +49.
  • Barcode: 400 — 440.

 

Trade and economic cooperation between the Republic of Belarus and Germany

Germany's economic performance in 2020: 

  • GDP — 3,329 billion Euro (+ 0,6%);
  • GDP per capita — 40.03 thousand Euro;
  • Public debt: 71.2% GDP;
  • Inflation — 0.6%;
  • Exports — 1,184.7 billion Euro;
  • Imports — 996.8 billion Euro;
  • Surplus — +187.9 billion Euro;
  • Germany's most valuable export products: cars and spare parts for them, machines, chemical products, metals and products thereof, electrical appliances, medical equipment, optics;
  • Germany's most valuable import products: cars and spare parts for them; computer equipment (data processing equipment, other electrical equipment), machines and equipment, oil, gas.

The German economy has an export-oriented nature. According to the Federal Statistical Office, every fourth job is related to export. At the same time, Germany, as a country not very rich in raw materials, is also dependent on imports, especially in the energy sector (oil, natural gas).

In 2020, German exports of goods decreased by 8.8% and amounted to 1,184.7 billion Euros, imports - by 5% to 996.8 billion Euros.

Germany has traditionally maintained a positive balance of foreign trade in goods, which in 2020 amounted to 187.9 billion Euros or 5.6% of GDP.

The export quota (including services) is 43.6%, and the import quota is 37.9%. Exports per capita (including services) amounted to 17,446 Euros, imports — 15,182 Euros.

For reference. Over the past 68 years (1952 2020), Germany has had a positive trade balance. Especially rapidly it began to increase since 2000 and increased from 59.1 billion Euros to 229.9 billion Euros in 2019 (3.9 times). The share of the balance in GDP increased from 2.8% to 6.7%.

Germany is one of the leading foreign trade partners of Belarus (one of the TOP five in terms of turnover). 

In 2019, trade between Belarus and Germany decreased by 15.4% and amounted to $2,623.1 million, exports decreased by 28.2% ($937.8 million), and imports by 6.1% ($ 1,685.3 million).

Trade dynamics in 2015 — 2020 (in million U.S. dollars)

 

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2020 as compared to 2019, % 

Turnover

2471.7

2276.9

2845.2

3262.2

3101.9

2623.1

84.6

Exports

1086.2

944.3

1118.1

1455.4

1306.8

937.8

71.8

Imports

1385.5

1332.6

1727.1

1806.9

1795.1

1685.3

93.9

Trade balance

-299.3

-387.3

-609.0

-351.6

-488.3

-747.5

 

In 2020, the bulk of Belarusian exports to Germany was made up of mineral products (36.8%), products of the forest and woodworking industries (23.3%), base metals and products from them (12.3%), machinery, equipment, instruments and tools (9.7%), chemical products (6%), agricultural and food products (3.1%), textiles and textile products (2.7%), building materials (2.3%).

Import from Germany has a pronounced investment character. Germany is one of the key partners for Belarus in the supply of high-tech equipment for the modernization of the production base of Belarusian enterprises. 

The main imports in 2019 were machinery, equipment, vehicles, apparatus and tools (53.2%), chemical products (27.8%), agricultural and food products (6.5%), base metals and products from them (6.5%), products of the forest and woodworking industries (2.7%).

In 2020, export of services from Belarus increased by 11.9% and reached $490 million, import — by 3.1% and amounted to $154.9 million. The surplus amounted to $335.1 million. 

Transport services occupy a dominant position in the export of services (70.5%), and the share of computer services is also significant (20.4%).

306 organizations with participation of German capital are registered in Belarus, including 166 joint ventures, 140 foreign organizations. As of January 1, 2021, the volume of accumulated German investments amounted to $684.3 million.

Among the largest German investors in Belarus are Henkel AG & Co. KGaA (participates in the joint venture “Henkel Bautechnik”, production of building materials in the city of Zaslavl), Linde AG (owns “Linde Gas Bel”, production of industrial and medical gases in the FEZ “Brest”), Remondis AG & Co. KG (participates in the JV “Remondis Minsk”, collection, transportation and processing of recyclables in Minsk), Carl Zeiss AG (participates in the JV “Zeiss-BelOMO”, production of optics in Minsk), Saria Bio- Industries AG & Co KG (participates in the JV “Saria Bio-Industries”, processing of animal raw materials, production of feed flour, technical animal fat in the Berezovsky district), Fielmann AG (participates in the JV “Filmann-BelOMO Minsk”, production of optics).

90 representative offices of German companies are registered in Belarus, including BASF, Siemens, Bosch, Bayer, Commerzbank, Bionorika.

In 2020, investments in the amount of $138.5 million were attracted from Germany to Belarus, including direct — $133 million, direct on a net basis — $76.9 million. 

The volume of investments from the Republic of Belarus to Germany in 2020 amounted to $29.2 million, of which direct — $12.7 million.

 

This article has been prepared on the basis of information provided by the National Centre for Marketing and Price Study of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in Germany, and taken from public sources. The information presented herein is for informative purposes only. In this regard, it may be useful for the companies, which have been working in Germany for a long time, as well as for those, which are going to enter this market. Any questions, feedbacks and comments concerning this article are welcome. All of them will be fully considered and taken into account, if possible. If you have any information that may be interesting and useful for the visitors of this page, please write to us.

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