Russian Federation

  • Official languages: Russian.
  • Geographical location: it is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea.  
  • Administrative divisions: federal subjects According to the Constitution, the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects, including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol. Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.
  • Capital: Moscow.
  • Governance: the politics of Russia take place in the framework of the federal semi-presidential republic of Russia. According to the Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is head of state, and of a multi-party system with executive power exercised by the government, headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President with the parliament's approval. Legislative power is vested in the two houses of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, while the President and the government issue numerous legally binding by-laws. 
  • Population: 146.55 million.
  • Currency: Russian ruble.
  • GDP: $1.281 trillion.
  • Time zone: from GMT +2 to GMT +12.
  • Telephone code: +7.
  • Barcode: 460 — 469.


Trade and economic cooperation Belarus and the Russian Federation

Russia's economic performance (2016):

  • GDP per capita — $26 490;
  • Foreign debt — $51.3 billion;
  • Exports — $285.5 billion;
  • Imports — $182.3 billion.

In general, relations between Belarus and Russia are strategic and friendly. These countries are founding members of the Union State, Eurasian Customs Union and Eurasian Economic Union.

The Russian Federation remains the main trade and economic partner of the Republic of Belarus.

Dynamics of bilateral trade in goods of the Republic of Belarus with the Russian Federation (millions US dollars)









































2018 as compared to 2017, %





In January — May 2019, the trade between the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation amounted to $13,864.3 million and decreased compared with January — May 2018 by 4.2 percent (or $613.6 million), as due to a reduction in Belarusian exports, and a decrease in Russian imports.

Exports amounted to $5,228.6 million and decreased to the level of the same period in 2018 by 1.6 percent (or by $83.8 million). Imports from Russia amounted to $8,635.7 million (a decrease of 5.8 percent or $529.8 million). 

The balance of mutual trade for Belarus amounted to minus $3,407.1 million (in January — May 2018 it was minus $3,851.1 million).

Russia accounts for 48.4 percent of the total turnover of the Republic of Belarus (49.5 percent in January — May 2018), including 39.8 percent of exports and 55.6 percent of imports (in January — May 2018 — 38,8 and 58.9 percent respectively).

The Republic of Belarus remains in the top five (4th place following the results of January — April 2019) of the largest foreign trade partners of Russia after China, Germany and the Netherlands. The share of Belarus in the total goods turnover of Russia with all countries of the world for January — April 2019 amounted to 4.8 percent (compared to 5.1 percent in the same period in 2018). The share of supplies of Belarusian products in Russian imports is 5.0 percent (in January — April 2018 — 5.3 percent).

The volume of exports of goods excluding the supply of oil, oil products, gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons, potash and nitrogen fertilizers amounted to $5197.4 million, the rate compared to the same period in 2018 — 98.7 percent. 

The main decrease in the value of export deliveries occurred in the following positions: 

  • beef — by 30.4 percent, or by $68.6 million (with a decrease in supplies in weight by 26.7 percent);
  • trucks — by 9.8 percent, or by $38.1 million (less delivered by 122 units);
  • malt extract — 2.1 times, or by $28.7 million (with a decrease in supply in weight by 28.1 percent);
  • milk and cream — by 13.5 percent, or by $24.9 million (with a decrease in supplies in weight by 20.4 percent);
  • chipboards — almost 2 times (both in value and in meter), or by $23.2 million;
  • tractors and tractor units — by 18.9 percent, or by $23.1 million (with an increase of 936 units);
  • machines and mechanisms for harvesting and threshing crops — 1.7 times, or $17 million (physical volume increased by 1,156 units);
  • potatoes — 2.4 times, or $18.8 million (with a decrease in supply in weight by 1.9 times).

Belarus's most promising products to export to Russia:

  • Fresh and chilled meat;
  • Fresh and chilled meat of poultry;
  • Fresh and chilled fish;
  • Milk and cream, concentrated;
  • Butter;
  • Prepared or preserved meat;
  • White sugar;
  • Processed petroleum oils;
  • Medications;
  • Leather footwear;
  • Machinery and equipment;
  • Cars;
  • Trucks;
  • Furniture.

The volume of foreign trade in services with the Russian Federation in January — April 2019 amounted to $1,365.5 million (a decrease of 10.2 percent compared to the same period in 2018). At the same time, exports of services amounted to $901.1 million (a decrease of 13 percent), imports — $464.4 million (a decrease of 4.3 percent).

In the structure of export of services, transport services account for 66.1 percent. They were provided for $595.6 million, compared with January — April 2018 — a decrease of 3.5 percent. 

Other business services account for 11.1 percent, they were provided for $99.6 million (a decrease of almost 2 times), construction services — 9.7 percent, provided for $87.5 million (a decrease of 33.7 percent).

Computer, telecommunications, and information services were provided for $63.6 million (a decrease of 4 percent). Their share was 7 percent.

The volumes of export to Russia of tourism (by 0.5 percent), insurance services (by 57.8 percent), health services (by 0.8 percent), culture and recreation (by 9.4 percent) increased.

The main positions in the import of services were occupied by construction (36.1 percent, compared to the same period in 2018, they were less by 1.7 percent), transport services (33.6 percent, growth by 4.5 percent), as well as others business services (17.4 percent, a decrease of 26.2 percent).

The balance of trade in services was in favor of Belarus — $436.8 million, but decreased by $113.8 million compared to the same period in 2018.

Russia remains the main investment partner of Belarus. In January — March 2019, it accounted for 40.9 percent of the total amount of foreign investments attracted to the Republic of Belarus during this period (or $1,213.4 million).

The share of direct investments from the Russian Federation in the total volume of direct investments attracted to the Republic of Belarus amounted to 37.4 percent (or $930.6 million).

The volume of foreign direct investment from the Russian Federation on a net basis (excluding debt to a direct investor for goods and services) amounted to $135.3 million or 13.6 percent of the total foreign direct investment attracted to the Belarusian economy on a net basis.

There are 2,451 enterprises with Russian capital operating in Belarus. 

In January — March 2019, $879.8 million of investments were directed from the Republic of Belarus to the Russian Federation (or 62.5 percent of the total amount of investments abroad during the indicated period), of which $855.0 million were direct investments.


This article has been prepared on the basis of information provided by the National Centre for Marketing and Price Study of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in the Russian Federation, and taken from public sources. The information presented herein is for informative purposes only. In this regard, it may be useful for the companies, which have been working in Russia for a long time, as well as for those, which are going to enter this market. Any questions, feedbacks and comments concerning this article are welcome. All of them will be fully considered and taken into account, if possible. If you have any information that may be interesting and useful for the visitors of this page, please write to us.

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