Assuming to carry out foreign trade transactions, the exporter needs to familiarize himself with a number of documents regulating foreign economic activity.
For trade contracts between parties whose enterprises are located in different countries, the provisions of the United Nations Convention on contracts for the international sale of goods (Vienna, 04/11/1980) are applied.
Requirements of customs, tax and civil legislation, legislation on currency regulation and currency control, etc., have a significant impact on foreign trade transactions.
Customs and tariff regulation in the Republic of Belarus is carried out in accordance with the law of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).
Principles of customs and tariff regulation are:
- common Commodity Nomenclature for the Foreign Economic Activity of the EAEU;
- common customs tariff of the EAEU;
- unified regulations for determining the country of origin.
In the Eurasian Economic Union on the customs territory of the EAEU member states, unified measures of customs and tariff regulation are applied.
Detailed information on the customs regulation of foreign economic activity is published on the official website of the Eurasian Economic Commission and the State Customs Committee of the Republic of Belarus.
Within the framework of the EAEU, a single mechanism has been created for applying non-tariff regulation of foreign trade to imports of goods from third countries (including special protective, anti-dumping and countervailing measures). These measures are applied after the investigation and the adoption of an appropriate decision on it.
In accordance with the Agreement of the Eurasian Economic Union dated May 29, 2014, unified non-tariff regulation measures are applied in trade with third countries of the EAEU (Article 46), which are established in accordance with the procedure specified in Appendix No. 7 to this Agreement.
Unified measures of non-tariff regulation are:
- prohibition of import and (or) export of goods;
- quantitative restrictions on the import and (or) export of goods;
- exclusive right to exporting and (or) importing goods;
- automatic licensing (supervision) of export and (or) import of goods;
- permissive procedure of importing and (or) exporting of goods.
The introduction of prohibitions and permits is regulated by the Decision No. 30 of the EEC Board dated April 21, 2015 (with amendments and additions).
The Agreement of the Eurasian Economic Union dated May 29, 2014 allows the EAEU Member States to introduce and apply non-tariff regulation measures in trade with third countries unilaterally on a temporary basis.
Detailed information on the customs regulation of foreign economic activity is published on the official website of the Eurasian Economic Commission and the Ministry of Antimonopoly Regulation and Trade of the Republic of Belarus.
In trade and economic relations with other countries, the Republic of Belarus uses 3 types of trade regimes: the free trade regime, the most-favored-nation regime, and the preferential regime.
The free trade regime is one of the closest forms of international economic integration. The consolidation of this regime is carried out on a contractual basis between states that have a very high level of trade, economic and political ties.
The free trade regime provides for the abolition of further tariff and quantitative restrictions in mutual trade. It is possible to establish exemptions from the free trade regime for particularly sensitive goods.
The Republic of Belarus is a party to agreements on a free trade zone with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Georgia, Serbia and Vietnam.
Detailed information on the customs regulation of foreign economic activity is published on the official website of the Eurasian Economic Commission, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus and the State Customs Committee of the Republic of Belarus.
Currency regulation and currency control in the Republic of Belarus are carried out on the basis of the Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 226-З “On Currency Regulation and Currency Control” dated July 22, 2003, and other legal acts.
The legislation contains standards governing relations in the field of:
- carrying out currency transactions;
- currency exchange transactions;
- mandatory sale of foreign currency;
- currency control, etc.
Detailed information on currency regulation and currency control is published on the official website of the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus.
International issues of taxation and tax administration in the Republic of Belarus are under the jurisdiction of Tax and Duty Ministry of the Republic of Belarus.
International tax cooperation includes:
- agreements on the avoidance of double taxation;
- agreements on the principles of payment of indirect taxes;
- mutual administrative assistance agreements.
Detailed information on international cooperation in the tax field is published on the official website of Tax and Duty Ministry of the Republic of Belarus.